Many people are aware of the ontological argument for God. This argument establishes God as the first of all causes. In other words, he is the unmoved mover. However, for many atheists, this argument is not sufficient, and the reason why is because it doesn’t explain why God must be the first of all causes. Therefore, I will give a new argument for the existence of God that establishes why he must necessarily be the origination of all causes. This argument specifically argues for God the Father and his eternal existence. Since we as Christians recognize that the Son Jesus is begotten of the Father, we understand that he is the first of all causes. And since the Holy Spirit is recognized as proceeding from the Father and the Son, he is subsequently understood as being the second of all causes. But the Father himself is uncaused, and so when I make an argument for God being uncaused, this argument specifically focusses in on the nature of the Father. There are additional arguments which explain why it is necessary for the Father to bring forth within himself a relationship that is trinitarian in nature and hierarchical with the Son being begotten of the same nature as the Father and the Holy Spirit proceeding from the two. But those will be explained later and they aren’t necessary for understanding how God himself must be the first of all causes.
The foundational premise for this new argument for the existence of God is founded upon the premise that non-existence can’t exist. In other words: in all directions, for all distance, for all eternity, from an eternity before now to an eternity from now, all space and time must be completely and totally encompassed by existence. Otherwise, it would be possible for nonexistence to exist, which creates a contradiction and is not logically possible. In other words, existence itself cannot be created, and existence itself cannot be caused, but existence itself simply is.
Even the sciences testify to this fundamental truth. Even in the vacuum of space, we know there is still space, and it exists, and it is continuous in all directions. One proof we can’t get away from existence, even in the vacuum of space, is the scientific understanding of distance, speed limitations, and how not even light nor radio waves can escape it—including those used by NASA to communicate with space rovers on Mars or rockets exploring the outer reaches of our solar system. The farther a rocket travels away from Earth, the longer the time it takes for the radio waves to reach Earth. The farther away an object that emits light is from Earth, the longer it takes for the light to reach us. Even the sun, our closest star, requires a little over 8 minutes for its light to reach us. If the space between the sun and earth did not exist there would be no delay in the light reaching us. If the space between NASA’s deepest space probes and earth did not exist, it would not require a long delay for the radio waves to reach us. And yet it does exist, and as a result it has an effect on the travel of radio waves and on the travel of light because even in the vacuum of space there exists space and nowhere in space can we find that space does not exist. It is a continuum in all directions without end. There might be a vacuum in space in which material existence is not there, but it doesn’t mean that there is no existence because there still exists space.
Scientists understand that time exists equally across the whole universe. Albeit, there are some ways in which the experience of time might be slowed down due to certain factors, but nevertheless if the environmental factors on one end of the universe are the same as the environmental factors, such as gravity, on the opposite side of the universe, then scientists would recognize that time would be experienced exactly the same. How is this so, unless all space is one, one existence, undivided for an infinity in all directions. In this way, even the universe testifies to us that nonexistence can’t exist. This is why God, in the Old Testament, addresses himself as “I Am,” and why we as Christians understand God to be infinite, and why we as Christians also say that all things live, move, and exist within God (Acts 17:28). God is existence. Most specifically, the Father is existence. If the Father encompasses all space, for all eternity, then to where shall he move? Because there is no space to which he does not already occupy. Thus, we can understand God the Father as being the unmoved mover. He has nowhere to move because he is everywhere. We wouldn’t say this of the Son or the Holy Spirit. Did not the Son walk among us? Did not the Holy Spirit descend upon the baptized Jesus like a dove? But with regards to the Father it is written, “Can anyone hide in secret without my seeing them? Do I not fill heaven and earth?” (Jeramiah 23:24). For this reason, we may speak of being filled with the Holy Spirit and receive the body and blood of Jesus, but we do not speak of being filled with the Father. Since all things exist within the Father, we instead relate to him through distance from his glorious throne. As it is written, heaven is his throne and earth is his footstool (Isaiah 66:1). He speaks to us from his heavenly throne (Exodus 20:22, Mark 1:11, etc.), but with us being at his feet the only true way to get to him and his heavenly throne is by way of the risen Son, Jesus.
This establishes the following two premises: 1. It is necessary that there be an eternal existence that encompasses all space and 2. If we were to satisfy this premise with the Christian view, it would be the first person of the Trinity, the Father, who satisfies this role. What is missing now is a logical argument which establishes that it must necessarily be the Christian God who satisfies the role of unmoved mover and not something else, and thus I will move on to argue this case.
We will start with the qualities of omnipotent, omniscient, and omnipresent. Knowing that nonexistence can’t exist leads us to the obvious conclusion that there must be an existence which is omnipresent—establishing that there is no place where nonexistence exists. But the other two aren’t as obvious without an analogy.
Imagine a thing which no one can perceive, no one can see, you can’t hear it, you can’t smell it. It takes up no space. Therefore, it can be given no position, it carries no position in space whatsoever. It can’t be known, nor can anyone come to know of it. It affects nothing, absolutely nothing will interact with it ever, for an eternity. And on top of that, it doesn’t encompass time, since time interacts with things, but nothing interacts with this. Time won’t interact with it, not a second nor a nanosecond, it carries no place within time. It can only exist within the span of no time. And so here is the question: can this thing exist? The only logical answer is that no, it does not exist. But rather, it is no thing, nothing, nonexistence itself. Nonexistence carries no properties. Existence, on the contrary, must carry properties. It can be perceived (through sight, through gravitational pull, through heat transfer, through magnetic attraction or repulsion, and many other interactions), it can effect other things and be affected by them, and all these things happen within space. Thus, it can be concluded that if God is to satisfy the premise that nonexistence can’t exist, it isn’t sufficient that he only just encompass all space. If that which is not perceived nor perceivable does not exist, then God must perceive all things (omniscience). If that which can’t effect anything does not exist, then God affects all things (omnipotence), and of course if nonexistence can’t encompass any space then God encompasses all space (omnipresence). Thus, we understand that the only thing which can satisfy the premise that nonexistence can’t exist is that which has omniscience, omnipotence, and omnipresence; in other words, God.
These 3 qualities satisfy the initial requirement of the premise that nonexistence can’t exist, but there is one component that it does not satisfy: time. It isn’t just now that nonexistence can’t exist, but it is eternally, for all time impossible that nonexistence exist. Thus, we must introduce a fourth quality to God: omnificence. God’s omnificence is established through the Trinity. As it is written of the second person in the trinity: all things were created through him and for him (Colossians 1:16), and is manifest through the third person of the trinity, the Holy Spirit, the Spirit of Life (John 6:63). Through God’s omnificence, all things are renewed and made new, perpetually, throughout all time. Without this, the prior three qualities remain incomplete, and thus can’t satisfy the principle of fulfilling existence across all time. The three omni’s across all time are thus: Omniscience—God has known, knows, and will know all things. Omnipotence—God has effected, effects, and will effect all things. Omnipresence—God was, God is, and God will be. With every act of omnificence, God establishes a newness of knowledge (a knowledge of that which is now but was not, a new creation which stems from creativity and not predictability). Thus, we can say that God will know with no deficit to his omniscience. With every omnificent act God manifests his omnipotence. Thus, he is not just a God who acted in the past, but a God who acts and will act into the future. And with every manifestation of omnificence God establishes his omnipresence; he is not dead but living eternally, his presence for all time is not-negatable.
Omnificence is diametrically opposed to predictability. To say that God has planned every detail of creation to eternity with no possibility for change is comparable to saying that God decided all things but decides no more—a direct negation of his omnipotence in the present and future tenses. If God is existence then he can’t be a God who was, as this would create a logical contradiction. Thus, we understand our God as being a God who flooded the whole earth in the days of Noah, then decided he would flood it no more. At the wedding in Cana, Jesus said it wasn’t his time, but yet he performed a miracle. In Matthew 24 Jesus tells us that the end days will be shortened—they could not have been shortened if they were not originally longer. Our God did not decide all things past tense, to which he has no more power to decide. But he decided, decides, and will decide all things for all time. This power—to act in ways that are unpredictable—stems from his omnificence which is manifest in the person of the Holy Spirit.
The Holy Spirit is the union of the Father and Son, and in him is the manifestation of God’s free will. The work of the Holy Spirit does not flow from the Father’s will or the Son’s will alone, but flows from a perfect union of the two. The Father wills justice, but the Son wills forgiveness. Through the perfect union of the two wills the second person of the trinity is brought into the world through the Holy Spirit by way of a virgin to bring to sinners a path towards salvation. Those who take it will be led to the tree of life, the cross, and be saved. Those who do not will face the justice of the Father—death. In this way we find that the will of God is not singular in nature but rather a perfect union of two wills. This has been reflected in his creation, as we human persons likewise carry within us a union of two wills—that of the intellect and that of the emotions, with the intellect carrying superiority. Likewise, marriage emulates this union of wills also, with husband and wife united as one flesh, one family, one will flowing from the union of two. Although the intellect rules over the emotions, it is not meant to dominate a soul. Although a husband is called to rule over his wife, he is not called to dominate her. Similarly, although the Son is obedient to the Father, the Father listens to the Son, and the union of wills is shown through the work of the Holy Spirit.
It is necessary for a will that is free to contain within itself a plurality. A will which is singular, concrete and unchanging is not free but is limited to one choice. Because God can’t be bound in this way and be existence itself, he must be trinitarian in nature (a duality united as one, equaling three parts). This grants God the capacity to will freely and indeterministically—with the exception that he can’t will that which is opposed to any aspect of his infinite existence, otherwise known as evil, since to use infinite existence to will non-existence, or to use infinite freedom to will non-freedom, would be logically impossible on the part of God. If he should be able to use his infinite existence to will non-existence it would necessarily establish that he was not infinite existence to begin with. This is similar to what is written in 2 Timothy 2:13: if we are faithless, he remains faithful, for he cannot deny himself. Similarly, if he is the great I Am, all existence, he can’t deny his own existence through evil.
Although God’s omnificence—the fourth omni—is perfect in and of itself by way of the trinity, it is important to recognize that a creature united with God plays a part in his omnificence. Prayer would be useless if it were not possible that God could change his will for the sake of the creature, thus we see that the creature can be made one will with his creator—with the will of God ruling over the creature but yet not dominating, as his Holy will is ever willing to accommodate to the petitions of his creation (Luke 11:5-10).
This concludes the new argument for the existence of God. Through reductio ad absurdum we know that existence must be infinite and contain within itself the four qualities of omnipotence, omniscience, omnipresence, and omnificence. The lacking of any of these qualities by existence would create a void in either space or time where nonexistence could exist, which is absurd. Although the first three omni’s could exist instantaneously by way of one will, known as the Father, omnificence necessarily requires a plurality united as one establishing the necessity for existence to be trinitarian: two wills united as one, establishing a third will which is the perfect union of the other two. By this means, existence itself, otherwise known as God, is able to perpetually make all things new, with no end to his creativity. Since creation flows from God’s omnificence, the creature is called to participate in his omnificence, and is able to petition for a change in God’s will by way of prayer. Thus, we find that God is logical and necessary, and the trinitarian conception of God held by Christianity is likewise logical and necessary. This establishes Christianity as a logical belief system, something atheistic belief systems can’t ever hope to obtain as they can’t satisfy the four conditions of infinite existence without admitting God, and they can neither deny the necessity of infinite existence without proclaiming a falsity as truth, that nonexistence can exist.